By Dr. Michael Cooper LaBossiere
This e-book provides descriptions and examples of forty two universal casual fallacies: advert Hominem advert Hominem Tu Quoque attract the implications of a trust attract Authority attract trust attract universal perform entice Emotion entice worry attract Flattery attract Novelty entice Pity attract acceptance attract Ridicule entice Spite entice culture Begging the query Biased Generalization Burden of facts Circumstantial advert Hominem Fallacy of Composition complicated reason and influence Fallacy of department fake hassle Gambler’s Fallacy Genetic Fallacy Guilt by way of organization Hasty Generalization Ignoring a standard reason center flooring deceptive Vividness Peer strain own assault Poisoning the good submit Hoc Questionable reason crimson Herring Relativist Fallacy Slippery Slope targeted Pleading highlight Straw guy Wrongs Make a correct
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Extra resources for 42 Fallacies
If there is evidence that a person is biased in some manner that would affect the reliability of her claims, then an Argument from Authority based on that person is likely to be fallacious. Even if the claim is actually true, the fact that the expert is biased weakens the argument. This is because there would be reason to believe that the expert might not be making the claim because he has carefully considered it using his expertise. Rather, there would be reason to believe that the claim is being made because of the expert’s bias or prejudice.
The basic idea behind this fallacy is that flattery is presented in the place of evidence for accepting a claim. This sort of “reasoning” is fallacious because flattery is not, in fact, evidence for a claim. This is especially clear in a case like this: “My Bill, that is a really nice tie. By the way, it is quite clear that one plus one is equal to forty three. Example #1: Might I say that this is the best philosophy class I’ve ever taken. By the way, about those two points I need to get an A. Example #2: “That was a wonderful joke about AIDS boss, and I agree with you that the damn liberals are wrecking the country.
A RRB is evidence that objectively and logically supports the claim. A PRB is a reason to accept the belief because of some external factor (such as fear, a threat, or a benefit or harm that may stem from the belief) that is relevant to what a person values but is not relevant to the truth or falsity of the claim. For example, it might be prudent to not fail the son of your department chairperson because you fear he will make life tough for you. However, this does not provide evidence for the claim that the son deserves to pass the class.
42 Fallacies by Dr. Michael Cooper LaBossiere