By Harald Muller
During this research of the level to which eu international locations have advanced in the direction of a nuclear non-proliferation coverage, six international locations are reviewed - West Germany, France, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain and the uk. It means that the nations of the ecu neighborhood have a necessary function to play in non-proliferation international relations in an effort to hinder the area outlook changing into more and more harmful and volatile. the 1st made from a long term multi-national undertaking sponsered through the Rockerfeller Brothers Fund, this learn surveys current traits, indicates ways that regulations can be more advantageous and spells out how the furnish of universal curiosity and last contradictory personal tastes determine within the eu associations, in overseas organisations and in nuclear hands keep an eye on coverage. Harald Muller has additionally edited "A ecu Non-Proliferation coverage: clients and difficulties" and "Blocking the unfold of Nuclear Weapons".
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Additional resources for A Survey of European Nuclear Policy, 1985–87
We should also note that the British and French nuclear industries serve military as well as civilian requirements. Each country has dedicated nuclear weapon design and manufacturing facilities; their military and civilian fuel cycles are only partially separated; and they manufacture nuclear reactors for their submarine fleets. This increases both the political and economic resilience of their nuclear industries and programmes, as will be discussed further below. 3 show the main features of the European civil nuclear industry in 1986.
C Six other plants have been 'mothballed' at varying stages of planning and construction. d The order for Sizewell B was confirmed on 12 March 1987. Sources: Nucleonics Week, 5 February 1987; 'World Nuclear Industry Handbook, 1987', Nuclear Engineering International; S. Thomas, The Realities of Nuclear Power: International Economic and Regulatory Experience (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987). I N 00 William Walker 29 allies, ostensibly to aid their nuclear programmes, can proceed without falling foul of COCOM rules is unclear.
As purchasers of fuel cycle services, and purchasers and operators (and in some instances architect engineers) of nuclear power plant, electric utilities have played a central role in nuclear development. 5 Their commitments of resources to technological improvement, particularly in relation to safety and operating performance, are today very substantial. Utilities are also important participants in the growing trade in reactor services. 6 Research and Development (R&D). Although considerable R&D is performed by industrial corporations and utilities, in most European countries there are large government-sponsored R&D establishments which are chiefly dedicated to the development and testing of nuclear technologies.
A Survey of European Nuclear Policy, 1985–87 by Harald Muller