By Roger Teichmann (auth.)
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Similar analyses would appear to be possible for other sentences which realists would say 'classified properties', such as 'Humility is a virtue' and 'Compassion is a weakness'. The general strategy would be to give a second-order quantificational analysis of the (first-level) predicable corresponding to our 'determinable' property, such that the predicable corresponding to our 'determinate' property can be truly substituted for the bound variables of that analysis, where 'determinate' and 'determinable' predicables are both (truly) predicated of some subject.
A Program for Syntax', in The Semantics of Natural Language, ed. Harman and Davidson, Reidel, 1972, p. ) It is this sort of consideration that lies behind the doctrine that 'logical analysis is relative to the purpose in hand'. Geach goes on to look at various of the traditional grammatical categories: verbs, conjunctions, adverbs, prepositions, and relative pronouns. In no case, he decides, is it possible to assign a single category-index to a grammatical category. For example, conjunctions may be 'subordinating', like 'ir, (::sss), or 'co-ordinating', like 'and' (:s(2s)).
The argument from eliminability by paraphrase merely trades on this difference in inferential capacities. That genuine singular terms must be ineliminable by paraphrase is a consequence of two claims, (a) that names alone are genuine singular Abstract Terms 43 terms, and (b) that the category of the name has the 'building-block' status ascribed to it in the last section. Hale's syntactic criteria for singular termhood, on the other hand, are more liberal, and it is easy to see how, on the basis of them (or criteria like them), one can put forward a defence of the thesis that terms like 'Wisdom' are genuine singular terms.
Abstract Entities by Roger Teichmann (auth.)