By J. Clapp
With the adoption of a global Bank-sponsored structural adjustment programme within the mid-1980s, Guinea underwent a dramatic switch in its financial and agricultural guidelines. The country's adventure during the last decade illustrates probably the most urgent difficulties encountered by way of African international locations pursuing fiscal reform. This e-book analyses those problems via studying the adjustment event in Guinea because it affected the country's total political economic climate and the rural zone specifically. It additionally locations this example in the broader context of African adjustment.
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Extra info for Adjustment and Agriculture in Africa: Farmers, the State, and the World Bank in Guinea
Having borders with six countries (see the map on page xv), many of Guinea's ethnic groups have straddled these boundaries and conducted trade on either side of the border, and the French found it virtually impossible to prevent such trade. The French divided Guinea into 29 administrative units, cercles, each of which was headed by a French commandant de cercle. The 38 Adjustment and Agriculture in Africa cercles were further divided into cantons comprising several villages. Local chiefs were given authority in the cantons, and after 1921 they were selected by the French rather than by the villages.
76 Women in agricultural development became a focus for several studies, and the importance of gender issues were increasingly taken into account in rural project design in Africa. In Kenya and Burkina Faso, for example, agricultural extension projects were redesigned to incorporate women as key actors. 77 In addition, the Bank began efforts to promote broader popular participation of farmers in agricultural development projects, as well as the formation of local, grass-roots farmers' organisations.
On the external dimensions of Africa's crisis, the report argued that while that external factors can explain some of the change in growth, they do not fully account for it. International economic factors such as terms of trade deterioration were labelled as 'surmountable obstacles', as some adjusting African countries managed to increase their GDP per capita growth in the face of falling terms of trade. 87 The huge declines in international export crop prices are dismissed on these grounds as insignificant developments.
Adjustment and Agriculture in Africa: Farmers, the State, and the World Bank in Guinea by J. Clapp